For the duration… World War II Home Front (Lawrence, MA)

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The first Independence Day parade of the war, 1942.

This year, 2020, is the 75th anniversary of the end of World War II. The Lawrence Public Library had intended to display posters, images, and ephemera that had been collected over the decades in memory of the period both here in the City and with Lawrencians in service.

The archivist writing this post is a “boomer”, and born after the war was over. But I still felt the weight of the war in my childhood. My contemporaries were still fighting WWII battles in the playground. My mother still collected fat in the kitchen. My sister, some years older than I am, remembers:

“Every Saturday mother gave me $1.00 to buy 10 savings stamps.

I pasted them in a book that promised $25.00. Only after a few 

years did the $25.00 appear due to accrued interest. The money

from these books helped me with college. 

We conducted WAR each recess on the playground. My family 

went to the movies every Saturday evening. The newsreels at 

the movies is how we saw the war”.

I did not grow up in Lawrence, but the country was sharing the burden down to the oldest and the youngest.  I will be displaying a number of Lawrence Public Library resources as I bring this story together. My hope is that all of those who have memories of the war at home and abroad that we can add to our story.  Due to the Covid-19 virus, I have not had the opportunity to go through the local newspaper to enhance the story.

  • Being at war
Lawrence Post Office responding to the war, 1943

The citizens of Lawrence enthusiastically contributed to a variety of volunteer programs. They submitted to government-managed rationing and price controls. The feeling was these programs contributed to the general good and was “for the duration…”

  • The draft and enlistment
A page from the Cronin Postoffice scrapbook

The first peacetime draft was enacted in 1940 by Congress. Local Draft Boards of community leaders determined how to fill them. There was little resistance. By 1943 there was severe labor shortage. Within weeks public library staff were clipping articles from newspapers about men and women who were serving. Years later the completed files (8,000 of them) were found in 17 boxes in the library stacks. The names in those files plus a list of gold star (deceased) military can be accessed here.

One of the more than 8,000 files the library has concerning WWII veterans
This dog tag comes from a collection donated to the Library by the Essick family
  • Civil Defense
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State guards replaced the National Guards. The Civilian Air Patrol enrolled civilian spotters in air reconnaissance, search-and-rescue, and transport.     Blackouts were enforced. Blackout curtains were placed over windows.

  • Labor

Local industries were in great need of labor to keep the war effort on track.

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From the outset of the war, it was clear that enormous quantities of airplanes, tanks, warships, rifles and other armaments would be essential to beating America’s aggressors. U.S. workers played a vital role in the production of such war-related materials. Many of these workers were women. Indeed, with tens of thousands of American men joining the armed forces and heading into training and into battle, women began securing jobs as welders, electricians and riveters in defense plants. Until that time, such positions had been strictly for men only.

  • Women
Women’s Air Force pilot paper doll

Women joined the workforce. United Service Organization (USO) provided morale and entertainment to uniformed military personnel. Women Air Force service Pilots (WASP) flew war plans from factories to air bases. Recently the Lawrence Public Library Special Collections acquired a remarkable collection of paper dolls, owned and played with, during World War II by Phyllis Tyler. The pilot doll above is a part of this collection and documents the change of the roll of women in the work force during World War II.

USO Girls: Jean Kochman in the middle back
  • Victory Gardens
“George Carter, Jr., son of George “Jud”Carter of the Solvent Plant, is helping to take care of Daddy’s Victory Garden”. (from Arlington Mills: News and Views)

Victory gardens were set up all over Lawrence.

During World War II, as an alternative to rationing, Americans planted “victory gardens,” in which they grew their own food. By 1945, some 20 million such gardens were in use and accounted for about 40 percent of all vegetables consumed in the U.S.

“Make carrot plantings once a month up to the middle of July and sufficient carrots will be available for fresh eating and storing for the winter. Carrots may be kept just by burying them in the sand in your cellar.” (from Arlington Mills: News and Views)

  • Recycling

Fat drippings were collected to make soap. Aluminum foil from gum wrappers and rubber bands were formed into balls by children and then contributed to the war effort.

  • Keeping spirits up

War bond drives, entertaining the troops, parades, preparing packages for soldiers, music, etc

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  • Propaganda: posters, film, rallies

Posters were displayed in many locations including public libraries. Lawrence is very lucky to have librarians who saved the ones displayed in the building. If allowed the archivist will return to put a number of these posters on display again. Topics included: war bond drives, victory gardens, loose lips, rationing, conservation, and the goals of the war.

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Movies were shown in local theaters with very patriotic themes: A walk in the sun,

  • Volunteer activities:

Red Cross USO, MCA, YWCA, YMHA, National Catholic Community Service, and the National Jewish Welfare Board were extremely active across the United States and very much in Lawrence.

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This is a page from a USO scrapbook.  You can see names and addresses of local organizations that contributed to the war effort.
Lawrence Jr USO entertaining the Troops
  • Rationing

Local ration boards were run by volunteers who were issuing ration books. Items like sugar were distributed evenly based on the number of people in the family. Fuel oil and gasoline were rationed to those who could show a need.

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When the troops return home when the war is over the City begins to remember.

McDermott Playground (Lawrence, MA)

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The McDermott Playground is located on Abbott Street to the rear of the South Branch of the Lawrence Public Library on Parker Street.  It is named after John A. McDermott who served with Company B of the 88th Infantry, 3rd Platoon.  He was wounded at the Battle of Okinawa, June 2, 1945 and died July 29, 1945.

Paper Dolls (Lawrence, MA)

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The Lawrence Public Library just acquired a collection of paper dolls from a long time Friend of the Library, Phyllis Tyler.  There are 16 sets of dolls that includes clothing and accessories.  One set that includes Betty, Bob, and Bitsy, the dog are in the above image.  Other dolls include the movie stars, Betty Grable and Ava Gardner, and a set called “Pilot Dolls” that were Women’s Air Force dolls from World War II.  These dolls were created in the 1940’s and played with on Oak Street not far from where the Library is now.

The entire collection is available here.

Demonaco Brothers Square (Lawrence, MA)

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The Demonaco Brothers Memorial Square is located at the intersection of Chestnut and Shorts Streets.  There were seven Demonaco brothers who served in World War II: Albert, Carmine, Harold, Henry, Joseph, Pasquale, and Salvatore.  The family lived at 125 Chestnut Street.  Albert Demonaco was killed in the war.

Sullivan Square (Lawrence, MA)

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Thomas A. Sullivan served with 338th Infantry Regiment of the 85th “Custer” Division of the 5th Army in World War II.  He was wounded in action in Italy and received a Purple Heart, Infantryman Badge, and the Combat Infantryman Badge. He was the son of James and Nora Sullivan. This memorial stands just in front of the family home at 342 South Union Street.  Thomas had four sons:  Thomas, Jr., Michael, Kevin, and Mark.  Kevin and Michael served the City of Lawrence as mayors.

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Eugene Scanlon, Sr. Square (Lawrence, MA)

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The Eugene Scanlon, Sr. Square was dedicated to Officer Scanlon July 4, 2015 with the police departments of Lawrence, Methuen,  Andover, and Salem, NH and his family in attendance. The square is located at the intersection of Amherst and Davis Streets in South Lawrence. Officer Scanlon died in the line of duty in 1972. He was a veteran of both World War II and the Korean War.

Cain Flagpole (Lawrence, MA)

cainThe Cain flagpole is named in honor of Frank Cain, a combat medic for the US Army’s 1st Cavalry Division during World War II. He was awarded the Bronze Star and a Purple Heart and assisted in liberating many POWs held by the Japanese at Bataan in the Philippines. The flagpole, at the intersection of East Haverhill and Prospect Streets, was originally dedicated in 1987, but removed in 1992. It was later rededicated Veterans Day 2010. Mr. Cain was active in the DAV.

Kater Square (Lawrence, MA)

katerKater square is on Bradford Street between Amesbury and Hampshire Streets. Kater Square is dedicated to the Kater brothers, William, James, and Michael, who served their country during World War II. Private James Kater was killed in action in France September 27, 1944. Ship’s Cook Michael Kater was killed in the allied invasion of North Africa aboard the USS Tasker Bliss in November 1942. Corporal William Kater was in the Army Air Force. They were all members of the local Syrian Young Men’s Association.

Sullivan Square (Lawrence, MA)

sullivanwSullivan Square is named after Commodore William A. Sullivan who achieved his rank (between a Captain and a rear Admiral) during World War II. He graduated from LHS in 1912, Phillips Andover in 1913, and MIT in 1917. His first job was as the South Lawrence correspondent for the Evening Tribune. He entered the Navy as lieutenant (junior grade) after graduation and stayed in through both wars. He came to national promenance as the chief salvaging officer raising the Normandie and clearing harbors in northern France and North Africa. Sullivan Square was dedicated to the Commodore in 2007 at the corner of Salem Street and South Broadway right next to St. Patrick’s Catholic Church.

Perry Square (Lawrence, MA)

perryPerry Square is located at the intersection of Parker and Market Streets in South Lawrence. It is dedicated to World War II Private First Class Raymond J. Perry who died during the Anzio Beachhead Battle in Italy during 1944. Before his participation in World War II he was employed at the Wood Mill. Perry received a Purple Heart Posthumously. He left a wife, Irene (Pelletier) Perry and his mother, Margaret Perry.